Deacon Odie D. Jones - Chairman Deacon Michael A. Overton - Vice Chairman Deacon Savington W. Nickens - Secretary
Deacon Henry Bostic
Deacon William Burney, Sr.
Deacon James O. Ensley
Deacon John W. Kilcrease, Sr., Emeritus
Deacon Robert Reed, Sr
The Biblical Role of Deacons
by Derek Gentle
New Testament Deacons serve the Lord by conducting the caring ministry of the church-doing the benevolence work, visiting the sick, being alert to the spiritual needs of the congregation for the purposes of freeing the pastoral staff to focus on prayer and the ministry of the Word, promoting unity within the church, and facilitating the spread of the gospel.
Biblical Guidance on the Office of Deacon
Deacons and Elders Are the Two Distinct Offices in a New Testament Church
The two New Testament offices are mentioned together in Philippians 1:1 and in 1st Timothy 3 — bishops and deacons. In 1st Timothy 3 the qualifications are spelled out for the two offices, bishops in verses 1-7, and deacons in verse 8-13. The qualifications are similar, but not identical. For example, the bishop is required to be “able to teach” whereas the deacon does not have that expectation. The differences in title and qualifications mean that the offices are distinct.
The term “bishop” is translated overseer in some translations. It is the word from which we get our word “episcopal” which means, “to look upon, inspect, oversee, look after, care for” and refers to “the care of the church which rested upon the elders.” The term is used interchangeably with “elder” and “shepherd” (i.e. pastor) in Acts 20 and 1st Peter 5. There is no question about the authority of the office: “Let the elders who rule well be counted worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in the word and doctrine” (1st Timothy 5:17 NKJV)
Three facts stand out:
In the original language, the word, Deacon, means Servant
The title itself is as descriptive as any job description could be. In the Bible, words have meanings and the word "deacon" means servant. Here is how the word has been defined in its various forms:
"Diakoneo and its derivatives, as their etymology suggests, are used mainly for personal help to others."
"Diakonia is found 34 times in the NT. It means service at the table in Lk. 10:40; Acts 6:1, etc."
"Diakanos is found 29 times in the NT. Its primary meaning is one who serves at tables."
("Serve, Deacon, Worship" in The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, Colin Brown, ed., volume 3, pages 544, 546)
"In Philippians 1:1 and in numerous references in early Christian literature outside the New Testament, bishops and/or elders and deacons are mentioned together, with deacons mentioned last. Because of this order, and because of the natural connotations of the word diakonos, most interpreters believe that deacons, from the beginning, served as assistants of church leaders." (Deacon, Deaconess, Fred A. Grissom, Holman Bible Dictionary, Holman, 1991)
The Office of Deacon Was Created for the Purpose of Handling the Benevolence Ministry
The Biblical account is quite clear on the founding of the deaconship and nowhere does Scripture repeal the original purpose:
“NOW ABOUT this time, when the number of the disciples was greatly increasing, a complaint was made by the Hellenists (the Greek-speaking Jews) against the [native] Hebrews because their widows were being overlooked and neglected in the daily ministration (distribution of relief). So, the Twelve [apostles] convened the multitude of the disciples and said, ‘It is not seemly or desirable or right that we should have to give up or neglect [preaching] the Word of God in order to attend to serving at tables and superintending the distribution of food. Therefore, select out from among yourselves, brethren, seven men of good and attested character and repute, full of the [Holy] Spirit and wisdom, whom we may assign to look after this business and duty.’” Acts 6:1-3 (Amplified)
The Office of Deacon Was Established to Free the Apostles (who functioned as the first pastors) to Pray and to Prepare to Minister the Word
The Apostles, in dealing with the benevolence ministry problem at the Jerusalem church, told the congregation that, "It is not desirable that we should leave the word of God and serve tables. Therefore, brethren, seek out from among you seven men of good reputation, full of the Holy Spirit and wisdom, whom we may appoint over this business; but we will give ourselves continually to prayer and to the ministry of the word." Acts 6:2-4 (NKJV)
Some have understood this passage to mean that it is the role of deacons to oversee the business of the church. First, the text says, “this business,” not “the business” — and the business being referred to is the business of benevolence. Second, as Dr. Robert Naylor points out, that would be a misrepresentation of the meaning of the word:
“The word ‘business’ should be discussed a little to prevent any misunderstanding. The Greek word is chreia and basically means ‘need.’ It is so translated twenty-five times. This is the only place it is translated ‘business.’ Hence there is no Scriptural authority for the deacons to make financial decisions of the church. Church decisions must remain church decisions.”
The Early Deacons Were Selected for Their Spiritual Qualifications
1st Timothy 3 and Acts 6 expound the qualifications for the office of deacons; the later contains what could fairly be called the "core qualifications":
"Men of good reputation, full of the Holy Spirit and wisdom" -- Acts 6:3
"And they chose Stephen, a man full of faith and the Holy Spirit" -- Acts 6:5
Often, when someone is discussed as a possible deacon one hears a remark such as, "He attends regularly and is a good giver." But God is looking at men with an internal dynamic, which cannot be determined in a superficial way.
Deacons Are to Be Capable of Serving the Lord in Spiritual Ways
The original seven deacons were people who were able to serve the Lord in ways which were more spiritual in nature than merely delivering food. Stephen was a man of spiritual power: "And Stephen, full of faith and power, did great wonders and signs among the people" (Acts 6:8 NJKV). Philip was not only a deacon but also was gifted in evangelism (Acts 8:5-7).
The Office of Deacon Requires a Firm Grasp of Sound Doctrine
A church is content oriented. It is a doctrinally driven community, built upon truth. Every member should have this approach in this fellowship; leaders such as deacons, not less but, more so. "They must possess the mystic secret of the faith [Christian truth as hidden from ungodly men] with a clear conscience" Acts 6:9 (Amplified)
The Presence of Deacons Should Advance the Unity of a Church
When the Apostles laid out the plan for the creation of this office, "The saying pleased the whole multitude" (Acts 6:5 NKJV). The complaints about the benevolence ministry stopped. And the complaints were by the Greek-speaking Jews, the Hebrew speaking Jews obviously bent over backward to preserve the church's unity, for all the men selected had Greek names. It is still true today: Any time a church has deacons who are properly doing their jobs, the church is more likely to be at unity.
The Presence of Deacons Should Advance the Cause of Evangelism
The immediate impact of the creation of the office of deacon was to eliminate the controversy in the church and to get the church back on course in fulfilling its mission. The Bible says that "Then the word of God spread, and the number of the disciples multiplied greatly in Jerusalem, and a great many of the priests were obedient to the faith" (Acts 6:8 NKJV). Again, it is still true. When a church has deacons, who are in God's will, the cause of world evangelization will be aided.
The Biblical Pattern for Deacons Seen in Church History
In the second through fifth centuries, deacons were the real agents of the charity provided through the church, providing for widows and orphans. They visited the sick and, as early as the third century, had deacon family ministry plans. They visited the martyrs in prison. Deacons helped to train new converts. They kept watch over the church members, reporting to the bishop any who seemed about to fall away. They attempted to restore the excommunicated. Deacons carried out administrative assignments given them by their bishops and met daily to receive instructions from him. Failure to carry out their assignments was cause for removal. If they had the authority from a bishop and a presbyter or bishop were present, they could baptize. They also assisted with the Lord's Supper. (Compiled from Charles W. Deweese, The Emerging Role of Deacons, Broadman Press, 1979, pages 12-15)
During the Middle Ages, the Office of Deacon came to less resemble the New Testament Model
"Later, medieval deacons assumed an increasingly ecclesiastical role, and their tendency to become candidates for the priesthood became more pronounced than ever. Almost no one was ordained to the diaconate unless he intended to advance to the priesthood." (Deweese, Page 18)
During the Reformation, the Return to Scripture Resulted in a Return to the Biblical Role of Deacons
"The diaconate is the ministry, not of reading the Gospel or the Epistle, as is the present practice, but of distributing the church's aid to the poor"
"Scripture specifically designates as deacons those whom the church has appointed to distribute alms and take care of the poor and serve as stewards of the common chest for the poor."
"Here, then, is the kind of deacons the apostolic church had, and which we, after their example should have." (Deweese, page 19)
Timothy George summarizes Calvin's' view of the biblical role of deacons:
"Calvin did, in fact, hold the office of deacon in high esteem. Deacons were public officers in the church entrusted with the care of the poor. He urged that they be skilled in the Christian faith since, in the course of their ministry, ‘they will often have to give advice and comfort.' Indeed, the deacons in Calvin's Geneva should have experts in what we call today social work as well as pastoral care." (Theology of the Reformers, Broadman Press, 1988, page 241)
In the early 1600's early Baptists such as John Smyth and Thomas Helwys, saw the primary role of deacons as that of carrying out the benevolence ministry of the church.
In 1654, in what would become an often-repeated description, Thomas Collier pictured the work of deacons as that of serving tables: the table of the Lord, the table of the minister, and the table of the poor (Deweese, page 20). Later Southern Baptist leaders would later utilize this description to describe the work of the deacon. Southwestern Seminary founding president B.H. Carroll recalled hearing a sermon delivered by S. S. Lattimore with this very outline and stated that he "thought it a very ingenious division of the table question" (Commentary on the English Bible, Volume IV, page 135). As recently as 1997, former SBC president Jim Henry used this outline as part of his materials in Deacons: Partners in Ministry and Growth.